Battle of Chosin River: Greatest Escape in US Military History [Video]

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95CgkrRgp4I

[Music] the battle of chosen reservoir marked a prominent moment in the korean war
00:00:06
during the 17 days of fierce battle amidst freezing weather thirty thousand u.n command troops were
00:00:11
surrounded by 120 000 people's volunteer army soldiers from china these men were under direct orders from
00:00:16
mao zedong to destroy the un's forces the u.s troops found themselves in the middle of the harshest winter recorded
00:00:24
during the war they were out of supplies and their guns frozen
00:00:28
desperate for artillery they placed their hope for survival on an artillery air drop
00:00:32
but to their surprise the ones that's dropped contained nothing but tootsie rolls
00:00:38
the chinese had the us tenth core trapped or so they thought however the us would ultimately pull off
00:00:43
a daring breakout to accomplish the greatest evacuation movement by sea in u.s military history
00:00:49
the battle has since become even more legendary thanks to tales about how the tootsie rolls actually saved the u.s
00:00:57
soldiers chinese intervention it seemed like the korean war would soon
00:01:06
end to the benefit of the u.n in south korea key battles were going the un's way such
00:01:11
as the successful landing it in john by the american tenth corps the counter offensive to the prussian
00:01:15
perimeter offensive by the eighth army and the rapid overrunning of the north korean people's army
00:01:20
the un forces were advancing into north korea hoping to set up a reunification before the end of 1950
00:01:26
yet this was not without complications the un forces were separated into two groups in the north
00:01:30
due to the country being split by its central and impassable tide back mountains
00:01:34
the eighth army had to trot on via the western coast while the republic of korea first corps and the us tenth corps
00:01:39
took the eastern shores on october 19th of that year after warning the u.n multiple times
00:01:44
the people's republic of china entered the korean war by sending soldiers of the people's volunteer army into north
00:01:49
korea one of the first chinese military units to arrive at the chosin reservoir was
00:01:53
the 42nd core which was assigned to halting the eastern u.n advance
00:01:57
in response the u.s first marine division of the 10th corps landed at one sun in the east coast
00:02:02
taking the chinese by surprise it almost immediately started fighting the defending 124th division of the pva
00:02:07
on november 2nd by the 6th the pba's 42nd corps ordered the division to retreat north
00:02:13
towards the reservoir so that the un forces would follow general douglas macarthur ordered the
00:02:19
8th army to launch its home by christmas offensive due to the onslaught of sudden chinese attacks
00:02:23
he saw the chinese intervention and the changing landscape of the war as quote one of the most offensive acts of
00:02:28
international lawlessness of historic record in support of this offensive macarthur
00:02:33
had the tenth corps attack from the west of the trojan reservoir to cut the supply line between man pojin
00:02:37
kange and huichon major general edward m almond the commander of the 10th corps
00:02:43
formulated a plan of attack on november 21st he would have the first u.s marine division advanced west
00:02:48
simultaneously the seventh infantry division would protect the right flank and the third infantry division
00:02:53
protected the left and rear of the formation at that point the tenth corps was spread
00:02:57
out through a thin 400-mile front when mao zedong received news to the marine landing at once on he ordered the
00:03:05
immediate destruction of the un forces in a message sent by telegraph at mao's request the formidable pva 9th
00:03:11
army was quickly sent to north korea on november 10th a move that went undetected by the u.n
00:03:15
forces unseen they penetrated the chosen reservoir area on the 17th
00:03:21
the chosen reservoir the trojan reservoir was a sparsely populated area around an artificial lake
00:03:28
to the northeast of korea in its original language the place is actually called zhang jin
00:03:33
but the name chozin used in the west to refer to the conflict comes from the mistaken japanese pronunciation
00:03:39
the un forces adopted it because they were using outdated japanese maps on the other side official chinese
00:03:44
sources referred to the battle as the eastern part of the second phase campaign
00:03:48
the battle was fought mainly around a 78 mile road connecting the reservoir with hong nam
00:03:52
which was the only retreat channel for the united nations forces the road had been created by cutting
00:03:57
through hills and rough terrain with steep drops and climbs the quality was less than ideal and was
00:04:02
no more than a lane of gravel at some points as if the conditions weren't difficult
00:04:06
enough the coldest winter experience during the war was on its way freezing the reservoir area and making
00:04:11
the terrain difficult to tread on furthering the already lousy weather november 14th marked the arrival of a
00:04:16
cold front from siberia that pulled the temperature as low as -38 degrees celsius or minus 36 degrees
00:04:22
fahrenheit the ground froze solid increasing the likelihood of frostbite
00:04:28
causing weapon malfunctions and leaving ice on the roads the army's supplies froze as well with
00:04:33
morphine surrettes needing defrosting often in the medic's mouth before injection some medical supplies were
00:04:38
temporarily ruined such as blood plasma which became useless once turned to ice batteries also struggled to function in
00:04:45
the low temperature making radios and vehicles challenging to handle the gun lubrication froze many weapons
00:04:50
and the spring from the firing pins were not hit hard enough to shoot or they would jam tootsie roll drop
00:04:59
the 30 000 soldiers committed by the us 10th corps and the un forces were under intense stress and facing an uphill
00:05:04
battle 120 000 chinese soldiers launched their attack at the chosen reservoir
00:05:09
the core commandeered by major general edward almond was freezing in desperate need of supplies
00:05:14
the un forces headed by major oliver p smith were facing an equally dire situation and in need of more bullets
00:05:21
badly outnumbered the coalition forces had earned the nickname quote the chosen few
00:05:27
coalitions submitted an air drop request with the code name tootsie rolls which would deliver artillery necessary
00:05:31
for their survival they were shocked to discover that the packages actually contained nothing more
00:05:36
than actual tootsie rolls however the candy ended up being extremely useful when frozen the titsy rolls could be
00:05:42
used to patch bullet holes and fix their equipment the sugar also jolted the starving
00:05:46
troops milton walker who drove a communications equipment jeep would later recall the
00:05:51
incident stating quote that was what most of us survived on for food for the three weeks
00:05:56
with the vehicles repaired the us and un forces were able to attempt to break out from the chinese encirclement
00:06:03
the battle of trojan reservoir at nightfall on november 27th the chinese people's volunteer army
00:06:09
conducted attacks and ambushes along the road from kotori and chosin the marines defending at udomni were
00:06:15
surrounded and attacked by the chinese as well one of the pva divisions struck the road
00:06:19
between hagaru and udamni cutting off the line of communication between the forces of the two areas
00:06:25
caught by surprise the un forces were utterly isolated as the battle raged in freezing
00:06:30
conditions at udon knee the people's volunteer army attacked the two companies defending the road
00:06:34
fox and charlie thanks to the success of the aggressive assault the charlie company retreated captain
00:06:40
william e barber's fox company was left standing alone on an isolated hill that looked over top tongue pass this
00:06:46
vital section would cement either side's control of the road the marines launched several failed
00:06:50
efforts to rescue the fox company putting a significant dent in the chinese forces
00:06:54
however ultimately captain william e barber's company was left to deal with the situation by themselves
00:07:01
fox company managed to hold the position for five days with artillery support from hagar ruri
00:07:05
and a few marine corsair f4u fighter planes that dropped napalm they were under constant attack by the
00:07:10
chinese the chinese allegedly realized that the bulk of the u.n forces were stationed at
00:07:15
udomni and that their garrison was twice as strong as they had previously believed
00:07:20
because of this song sri lun considered all further attacks pointless and ordered his ninth army to redirect
00:07:25
its primary efforts towards tagari and sinhongni the forces that udomni got some rest
00:07:29
between november 28th and 30th on the western korean front the us 8th army was forced to fully retreat from
00:07:36
the battle of the trungton river which started with surprise attacks on november 25th
00:07:41
the pva successfully struck the 8th army's right flank which allowed them to position themselves at the un forces
00:07:46
rear macarthur ordered the withdrawal of the us 10th court to the port of hongnam
00:07:50
in response lieutenant raymond l murray and colonel homer l witzenberg issued an order requiring the troops to
00:07:56
break out from udamni to higarari on the 30th general oliver p smith reportedly stated
00:08:01
at the time quote retreat hell we're not retreating we're just advancing in a different direction
00:08:07
to retreat the marines assembled a convoy led by a single m4a3 shrimp and tank
00:08:12
they conducted their attack in the direction of fox company still stranded by itself
00:08:16
so that they could all march through the road at took tongue pass on december 1st the marines engaged the
00:08:21
people's volunteer army again with the marines forced to dig in on slopes between peaks and trails to
00:08:26
attack the chinese defenders the pva returned attacks on yurum knee as one of their divisions headed for
00:08:31
kotori the pva struck at night with such force that knight fighter planes had to be
00:08:36
called in to cover the rear forces and fend off the attacks the fighting continued until dawn in the
00:08:40
second it only truly stopped once all the marines had withdrawn from the area by then the chinese forces were
00:08:47
considerably diminished at udamni and hagaruri seong shilun ordered his troops at
00:08:52
kotori and hangnam to dig in near funjilin pass to destroy an essential treadway bridge
00:08:56
they hoped this obstacle would allow the remaining pva forces to reunite and catch up to the retreating un forces
00:09:02
to overcome the problem of the destroyed passage the us 314th troop carrier wing provided eight c-119 flying box cars to
00:09:09
drop portable bridge sections by parachute the united nations forces finally
00:09:13
arrived at the hong kong evacuation perimeter on the night of december 11th the hongnam evacuation
00:09:21
by the time the un forces arrived at the port city of hongnam general douglas macarthur had already given the
00:09:25
evacuation order for the u.s 10th corps subsequently the u.s would conduct an evacuation deemed one of the greatest if
00:09:31
not the greatest in u.s military history sometimes called the christmas miracle 193 ships arrived at the port to carry
00:09:38
away coalition troops their heavy equipment and about a third of the korean refugees in the area
00:09:43
one of the involved vessels the ss meredith victory was only assigned to carry 12 people
00:09:47
but left the port with 14 000 refugees on board after the last united nations unit
00:09:52
departed on december 24th the port was destroyed so the chinese couldn't use it the people's volunteer army entered hong
00:09:58
kong the following morning signaling a new phase in the korean war [Music]

Source : Youtube
 

Be the first to comment

Leave a Reply